From The Center for Immigration Studies: A lecture given by Msgr. Arturo J. Bañuelas, Pastor of St. Mark’s Parish in El Paso, TX. Delivered at the 2019 Catholic Immigrant Integration Initiative Conference on March 12, 2019 | Santa Clara School of Law. You can get additional information by continuing with this link.
“When Mexico send its people they’re not sending their best. They’re bringing drugs, they’re bringing crime, they’re rapist.” – Donald Trump June 2015
Written by Yolitzma Aguirre in The Herald Post.com
“This is the moment that changed everything for me and my community.
I was traveling across the country at the time and I distinctly remember how strong the shift in energy happened. It seemed that overnight this presidential candidate had blown a whistle making it ok to unleash Mexican hate, brown hate.
All of sudden, I found myself limiting my Spanish speaking in public, afraid to be myself, afraid to be Latina.
As I have previously written, these were fears that I had not experienced since I was a child. To be going through this again as an adult was mind-boggling and jarring. There is no way this man can become president. There is no way this kind of hate speech can be allowed from a presidential candidate, can it?
As it turned out, yes, it was allowed and yes, he became president.
My life in Trump’s America is vastly different. Not only am I afraid to speak Spanish in public but my lifestyle is different, too.
I try not to travel as much, I am afraid of being “randomly selected” for questioning if I leave the country; as has happened to so many people. I travel with my passport at all times – even though I was born here – because I don’t want to “accidentally” be taken into custody while they “verify” my birth.
These things have happened to U.S. citizens. If you’re one of those people that lives in a bubble and thinks those things are NOT possible, well then in the words of George Strait, “I’ve got some oceanside property in Arizona” for ya.
These things do happen, they have happened to people I know, they have happened – in varying degrees – to me.
Since Trump has taken office, I have been pulled over 13 times driving across Texas for work; no violations, no citations given, no speeding, no expired stickers, no broken lights, etc… always told “just wanting to check things out.”
I know what that means, I hand them my driver’s license AND my passport at the same time because I don’t have time for a modern day version of the “Spanish Inquisition.”
Like many of you, I have watched Trump berate and drag not only Latinos and the undocumented community through the mud, but also Muslims, Indigenous Peoples’, African Americans, Women, LGBTQ, people with Disabilities and the majority of Americans that disagree with him.
Needless to say, it has been EXHAUSTING. But over the last few weeks, something has been different, instead of sticking to his usual racist rants about the “southern border” he picked and targeted my hometown, by specifically naming El Paso in his speeches and spreading false accusations about our community.
During the State of the Union address last week, Trump decided to turn it up and tell the nation that at one point El Paso was the most dangerous city in the country. LIES. I’m sure many of you were like me, LIVID. To begin with, as Mexican (Mex-Americans) our blood already runs filled with orgullo, add the fact that we’re Texans, that’s a strong dose of extra pomposity to our character AND I am part of those folks filled with border pride; so listening to someone trash my city, my home…it is the same severity as slapping a loved one.
To add insult to injury, Trump decided to head to our Sun City and launch his first 2019 rally here. HELL NO.
The man that kicked off his campaign on day one by stating to the world that me and my Mexican, Mexican-American community, my culture, heritage, family and friends, were all “rapist and criminals.”
The man who has called for the Muslim ban
The man who called African nations sh**holes
The man who passed the unprecedented zero-tolerance immigration policy, tearing families apart
The man who has never acknowledged that Black Lives Matter
The man who has publicly called KKK members “very fine people”
The man who continuously uses historic Native American names in ridicule and ‘fun.’
The man who has verbally condoned sexual assault on women “grab them by the p***y”
The man who mocked a person with a disability on national TV
The man who has called for a ban of Transgender Americans in the military
That same man was now coming to our house and the eyes of the nation would be upon us, how would we respond?
I have participated in enough protest and marches here, that I expected a decent turnout, but nothing prepared for Monday night.
It was a school night, a Monday, it was really cold and windy so I prepared myself for a low turnout, thinking people had to get to work the next day, they have to get the kids ready, etc…but that didn’t happen.
I arrived to the March For Truth rally at Bowie around 3 p.m. and the parking lot was already filled, I was beyond happy. However, as the hours passed the crowd kept growing and growing, by the time we were ready to march around 6 p.m. you couldn’t see where the crowd ended.
I was at the front of the march taking video and photos, then with perfect precision the organizers instructed us all to line up and we began to march and chant in sync.
With the sun setting I decided to put away my phone and march with the group. After a few minutes, the sound of voices booming echoed through the air, so much so, that I had to stop and turn around. What was behind me was not a wave, it was a Tsunami of hope.
I ran to the side of the march and took footage of the never-ending flood of people marching. Minutes passed and I was nowhere near finished filming the line.
To give you perspective, I was at the front nearing Delta Center, the march ran the length of the Chamizal on the border highway and stretched all the way past Bowie High School.
Every person that has been attacked, been insulted, been persecuted, by the current president…we were all there to say, no sir you will not belittle us, your hate will not win. My eyes filled with tears at, literally, the outpouring of pride.
El Paso showed up bigger than I could ever have imagined.
We arrived at the “Celebration of El Paso” party taking place right next door to the Trump rally, we could see the big screens and hear their music from where we were located. With Mariachi music blasting, we all poured in and began singing and dancing, people waving Sage smudge sticks blessing the space and peace took over the energy.
Yes, there were agitators there to provoke us but the weirdest thing happened, I can’t explain why or how; as angry as I have been and with agitators yelling in our faces, I didn’t care, somehow those red hats didn’t matter.
Maybe it was the sage, but the pride that I had in my city filled my heart…and for that moment, love did trump hate.
Word came in that Trump had arrived and was taking the stage, the Mariachi group then announced “we dedicate this to Mr. Trump” and a familiar beloved song filled the air, Viva México.
We all laughed and sang our hearts out. For me, it was all I could do to hold back my tears. El Paso is my home, it is my foundation, it is where my heart lives, my mother, my family, it is an extension of me…so I sang with all I had, to let that man know, I can’t have anyone talking about my city.
Trump may speak loudly, but El Paso had the last word.
I love you El Paso. Thank you to all the amazing groups and activists that organized. Thank you to the families, the people, each and every person who showed up to say “NO” to racism!
The civil rights era started with a defining moment that became a movement, for equality.
This was our defining moment.
Children will one day read about this and ask about this, we can tell them we stood up and fought for our community, we marched for truth, we defended El Paso.”
A thoughtful piece by Ford Foundation President Darren Walker, President of the Ford Foundation.
…As we begin 2019—a year that already portends to be among the most tumultuous in memory—I certainly welcome “the coming of hope.” After all, at the Ford Foundation we are in the business of hope. Our hopes for our grantees, our communities, and our world inform the work we do each and every day.
At the same time, we must set our hope in relief against the realities of a world that feels on edge and off kilter, more precarious and less predictable. The reason for all of this, in my view, should not come as a surprise: Our political and economic system continues to produce and perpetuate staggering inequalities of all kinds.
Millions of people feel frustrated with, and excluded by, an out-of-balance global economic system they are decreasingly willing to tolerate. In the United States and globally, we see the evidence and urgency mounting: Grassroots movements objecting to fundamental inequalities in our society are mobilizing, calling out for fairness and justice. They are naming causes of our current plight—among them, global capitalism that produces outsize wealth for owners and increased insecurity for workers; authoritarian leaders who foment division, discord, and dysfunction; fast-moving technological innovation, with consequences citizens are only now beginning to understand; and the long-standing evils of racism, classism, ableism, homophobia, and patriarchy. And although this is our society’s truth, it—like all truth—is under constant assault as the fidelity of facts, and our faith in them, is undermined. Continue Reading
By Beatriz Vera, Moderator of the Forum and EPSJ Team Member
The El Paso Social Justice Education Project, held a Social Justice Forum titled Environmental Justice: Growing Disparities in the Distribution of Environmental Burdens and Benefits on Sunday June 24, 2018 with speakers:
Dr. Jayajit Chakraborty, Professor of Geography in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, and the Director of the Socio-Environmental & Geospatial Analysis Lab at UTEP. (https://faculty.utep.edu/Default.aspx?tabid=73205)
Kevin Bixby, environmental activist, Founder and Executive Director of the Southwest Environmental Center in Las Cruces, NM. SWEC works to protect wildlife and restore habitats. (http://www.wildmesquite.org/who-we-are)
Dr. Chakraborty presented a historical perspective of what is now defined as Environmental Justice. This history is recognized going back to Warren County in N.C., where the dumping of PCB in a 75% African American community. Residents feared that their groundwater would be contaminated by PCB. Local leaders organized protests which attracted the support of civil rights groups against the construction of a landfill where 31,000 gallons of PCB would be stored after the community rejected that they be dumped on the side of roadways in 14 NC counties. This event attracted national attention to the issues ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM now seen as the beginning of the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM). The following videos go into the beginnings of EJM.
By 1994, the Environmental Justice Movement had identified the intersection of Race and Class and PLACE (where we LIVE, WORK and PLAY) as its focus and received a major impetus when President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 12898, known as Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations where the EJM identified INJUSTICE to lie. Its purpose is (was) to focus federal attention on the environmental and human health effects of federal actions on minority and low-income communities with the goal of achieving environmental protection for all communities.
Dr. Chakraborty ended his presentation with an update on the EPA since Scott Pruitt was appointed and the many delays, policy rollbacks, and cuts to funding for previous activities. This includes the discontinuation of data basis which are used in research and policy analysis. The words “investment” and “business” have now substituted the words “environment” and “human health”. For more from Dr. Chakraborty see his recently published, co-edited book The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice.
During his presentation, Kevin Bixby, Founder and Executive Director of the Southwest Environmental Center (SWEC), spoke about the mission and work of SWEC.
SWEC, established in 1992, is a grassroots conservation organization based in Las Cruces, New Mexico, whose mission is to protect and restore native wildlife and their habitats in the Southwestern borderlands through advocacy, education and on-the-ground projects.
Bixby explained the many projects SWEC has historically worked on to protect and restore vital habitat. He also gave examples of this work in the Otero Mesa and the Rio Grande as well as with endangered species like the Mexican Grey Wolf.
Currently, the Border Wall is of major concern in that it affects precisely the interests and survival of the issues SWEC is constantly trying to address. Specifically, Bixby explained how wildlife is threatened by the creation of major obstacles to their free roaming for food, water, and mating, which is particularly important in sustaining a diverse genetic pool in order for populations to live and thrive. Even though most people believe the wall is not yet being built, there have been efforts to continue building and replacing important sections of the wall using many of the prototypes solicited by the Trump administration. Some of these are more damaging to wildlife than others.
SWEC seeks alliances and collaborations with many other groups, including those with similar missions in conservation and habitat protection. Kevin also explained that even though SWEC has “environmental” in its name, the common enemy that other EJ Organizations share is INJUSTICE, which also drives SWEC to seek alliances and collaborations with other groups who are denouncing and protesting the building of (Trump’s) Border Wall, in particular groups fighting for the Human Rights of Immigrants and Families.
In reality, Bixby explained, it is animals and wildlife who have no voice vis a vis power structures for their defense. This is the work SWEC does. And, because the Lower Rio Grande Valley has one of the most ecologically diverse populations and habitat in the United States, the Border Wall will have a grave impact not only on humans, but also on the ecology of the entire region.
Discusssion: Partcipants had many comments and questions. A summary is attempted below. After answering questions regarding each of their presentations, a lively discussion ensued among the participants.
The most salient points brought up were the fractured efforts of environmental groups in El Paso, as opposed to Las Cruces, N.M. where there appears to be a lot more collaborative efforts. Some of the discussion centered on the difficulty of getting younger people involved. However, participants pointed out that this is not only a difficulty with environmental issues but with most issues that require commitment and activism. Some successful strategies mentioned revolved around not expecting younger people to care about our causes when we haven’t demonstrated interest in what they seem to care about. The Women’s March El Paso and March for Our Lives were mentioned. (Contact Beatriz Vera if interested at email@example.com)
A second set of difficulties which were addressed were the lack of paid positions in environmental and human rights organizations. Several participants offered contacts to get paid internships, n The UTEP Center for Civic Engagement could play a role in providing service-learning opportunities, course credit (or partial credit in lieu of research papers) or a limited number of paid internships as founder Kathy Staudt mentioned. (Contact the CCE director Azuri González firstname.lastname@example.org). Martha Valadez, MSW, is the SWEC Field Organizer: Contact her at email@example.com; Office: 575-522-5552; Cell: 734-344-2372; Fax: 575-526-7733.
The third set of topics centered around how the participants to this forum could stay in touch and perhaps, explore possible collaborations. Please write Beatriz Vera with your ideas and suggestions. firstname.lastname@example.org.
As a side, after the powerful presentations and discussion, we invite you to listen to this interview, heard June 25 on NPR-Fresh Air with Terry Gross.
Well known observer of border interactions, Kent Paterson, reports on the Mexican Presidential election and the EP Social Justice forum held last Sunday.
EL PASO, TEXAS - As Mexican presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) continues to dominate the polls, contrary political forces are pulling out the stops to prevent the left nationalist reformer from sweeping the July 1 elections.
And at this juncture, the scramble for second place in the polls is shaping up as a strategic bend in the campaign curve. That's the assessment of Rice University's Dr. Tony Payan, director of the Mexico Center at the Houston university and a longtime analyst of Mexican politics.
Speaking at a recent event sponsored by the El Paso Social Justice Education Project, Payan dissected the current balance of the presidential contest, the campaign strategies of the three main electoral coalitions, the political ramifications of the election on U.S.-Mexico relations, and other defining elements of the upcoming July 1 elections. Continue reading
Kathy Staudt, El Paso Social Justice Planning Committee
On March 25, Attorney Enrique Moreno spoke to approximately forty people at the El Paso Social Justice Forum about the use of lethal force in local law enforcement. He spoke in detail about two of three cases against the city for the death of young men with mental issues. To begin the presentation, Moreno asked: 'Under what circumstances can government agents kill people?' Such a question is a compelling one for El Pasoans. El Paso has a dense, militarized law enforcement from federal, state, and local-level agents who, admittedly, may find themselves in dangerous circumstances. However, a key issue for Moreno is whether officers are properly trained to make life-and-death decisions, especially in cases involving possible mental illness.
As Attorney Moreno summarized, in most big-city police departments in Texas, trained officers in a Crisis Intervention Team respond to cases of probable mental illness. El Paso is an exception to the rule. Although statistics are hard to come by, approximately 25% of lethal force cases involve a mental health crisis nationwide; in El Paso, 70% of our lethal force cases involve a mental health crisis. Those undergoing a mental health episode often do not comply with orders from police officers. And for officers with limited or no training in mental health, non-compliance may be viewed as disrespect and justification for escalation. Death can be the tragic result.
As a researcher and active community member, I know that the details of legal cases provide rich testimony and documentation, such as what Attorney Moreno provided. In the first case, Moreno spoke about a young Hispanic man who trespassed in a neighbor's home, but did not steal anything or threaten anyone. He returned home, the police arrived, and within twenty minutes shot the young man dead four times in the back. The police officer claimed the victim had charged at him with a machete, but no machete was found and the young man was shot in the back. In the second case, Moreno spoke about a parent's frantic call to police for help when their young-adult son was threatening suicide. Upon arrival, the son had a rope around his neck and his hands by his neck, presumably holding the noose away from his neck, and did not comply with the officer's order to show his hands. The officer tased the victim (with an electroshock stun gun), and he died several minutes later.
Who decides whether officers made proper decisions when they killed victims, and especially victims with mental issues who caused and threatened no harm to the community. Police departments typically operate internal affairs departments to investigate complaints about officers. Members of disciplinary review boards decide whether officers acted properly. However, when police chiefs appoint board members, particularly in an organizational culture that tolerates lethal force or gives no priority to establishing a Crisis Intervention Team, members of the public should wonder whether a full and honest hearing has occurred. Until recently, after the U.S. Department of Justice intervened, the Albuquerque Police Department had a notorious reputation for excessive use of lethal force. At the 2016 Texas Tribune annual conference, I attended the "Mental Health Matters" panel with a bipartisan group of Texas state legislators who responded to my question about the expected increase over 15 hours of mandated training (see toward the end: http://www.chucopedia.org/2016/10/10/diversity-trumps-border-security-at-this-years-texas-tribune-festival/#more-268).
After Attorney Moreno's fine presentation, he opened the floor to questions from the audience, many of whom could be called concerned people of conscience, along with the readers of this essay. Community people, after all, he said, are the ones who can promote real change. A rich dialogue took place, with a summary below of questions (Q) and answers (A).
Q: What is the intersection of race/ethnicity and class?
A: In these particular cases, it is Hispanic officers using lethal force on Hispanic victims. Both proper training and the absence of a Crisis Intervention Team are the issues here. [Later a question was also raised about the need to develop a better selection process for those seeking jobs in police departments.]
Q: El Paso is continuously touted as a 'safe community.' Might that influence the quiescence of the community that tolerates the lethal force and a chief that made disparaging comments about Dallas community members' activists as 'terrorists?'
A: El Pasoans seem to be a deferential group on the whole, with respect for the police no matter their behavior. El Paso has a long history of deference to militarized law enforcement at multiple levels, from local to federal levels. [And a question later noted the absence of media attention and follow up to lethal force cases. Univision (KINT TV Channel 26) was the only news organization present.
Q: About ten-to-fifteen years back, El Paso moved toward a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model, although limited to MHMR (later renamed Emergence Health Network) clients in a community with a woefully lacking number of mental health providers.
A: The effort fizzled out, although at the county level, the sheriff has instituted a Crisis Intervention Team model and is responsive to the community. Neither responsiveness nor the CIT model is a priority in the city. Research on cities which instituted CIT models show positive outcomes; for example, in Houston, the CIT reduced SWAT responses by 66%.
Q: What is the chain of command for the police department and chief?
A: He/they answer to the City Council and Mayor. Action would need to occur among those elected officials, most of whom were notably unwilling to do anything about the chief's remarks about Dallas (see second Q&A above). Moreover, City Council may be reluctant to act for fears of negative effects on litigation and damages to be paid.
Q: We should examine next year's City Budget for line items requested by the police department to see whether the chief has requested a CIT or better mental health training. Might the organizational culture change with community calls for action on a Crisis Intervention Team and better training for mental health episodes and for de-escalation techniques rather than lethal force?
A: In several responses, forum participants suggested that questions could be raised to candidates in upcoming forums for City Council seats (2018 is the transition year for local elections to be aligned with the November elections rather than in spring).
The EP Social Justice Committee issued a call to action for those interested in (1) communicating with their representatives, (2) commenting on the city budget (https://www.elpasotexas.gov/~/media/files/coep/office%20of%20management%20and%20budget/fy18%20budget/fy18%20preliminary%20book%20digital%20copy.ashx?la=en; comments due early May: https://www.elpasotexas.gov/omb/chime-in ), (3) meeting with representatives, and (4) possibly appearing before City Council if and when an ordinance is introduced for a Crisis Intervention Team and/or an Independent Citizens' Review Board in police operations to reduce tragedies such as those covered in the session. Contact email@example.com .
All in all, Attorney Moreno's presentation at the EP Social Justice Forum facilitated a productive and informative session among people of conscience to provide police with the proper training and tools for fewer or no lethal force.
Please attend the next EP Social Justice Forum on April 29th, 2:30-4, with the distinguished Professor, Dr. Tony Payan, Director of Rice University's Mexico Center, speaking on the topic: "Mexico's Upcoming Presidential Election (July 1): What might results mean for the U.S. and U.S.-Mexico Relations?"
Kathy Staudt, PhD, is a retired Professor of Political Science. In her second-to-last book, she and Dr. Zulma Méndez co-wrote an analysis of the non-deferential social change movements in our neighboring city: Courage, Resistance, and Women in Ciudad Juárez: Challenges to Militarization (Austin: University of Texas Press 2015). Kathy will always remember the scenes and the noises in her ten-hour police Drive Along years ago, part of victims' assistance training, when a mentally ill man's sister called the police to settle him down in a store. He became agitated, so was charged (much to the sister's dismay) and locked up at downtown headquarters without his medication, growing increasingly agitated and knocking his head on the wall while the officer wrote up the charge at the end of his long shift.
From Melinda D. Anderson at The Atlantic:
"In Tucson, Arizona, Che Guevara posters and Paulo Freire’s The Pedagogy of the Oppressed are the spark that set off a heated conflict over ethnic studies that has made national headlines for years. For critics, including two former state schools superintendents, the Mexican American studies program in the Tucson Unified School District is little more than divisive propaganda: “ethnic chauvinism” with a “very toxic effect … in an educational setting.” For supporters, reading literature on Chicano history in America and critical race theory is intended to close cultural gaps in the curriculum—and to close academic gaps for the district’s Hispanic students.
The intense controversy in Tucson over ethnic studies—best described as the study of the social, political, economic, and historical perspectives of America’s diverse racial and ethnic groups—might seem like a new debate, but it’s over a century in the making. The educator and historian W.E.B. DuBois as early as the 1900s called for teaching black history in U.S. schools to challenge the prevailing narrative of black inferiority. More than half a century later, Freedom Schoolsemerged out of the 1960s civil-rights movement as alternative schools with a curriculum steeped in black culture and lessons drawn from black students’ lived experiences. About the same time the discipline of ethnic studies ignited on college campuses, as students of color considered the Eurocentric dominance in textbooks and lessons, and demanded multicultural courses." Continue reading
From a blog, Foreign Policy & Domestic Policy by Bob Davis: Jeff Flake lambastes Trump in his speech, "Our Freedom is Predicated on Truth."
Mr. President, near the beginning of the document that made us free, our Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson wrote: “We hold these truths to be self-evident…” So, from our very beginnings, our freedom has been predicated on truth. The founders were visionary in this regard, understanding well that good faith and shared facts between the governed and the government would be the very basis of this ongoing idea of America.
To see interesting visuals and read/hear the speech Continue reading
From El Paso Times article: “What we have learned in the past was how we were dealing with these folks post-conviction, after pleading,” said Anchondo, who has run the program since its inception in 2004. “So, when we started the program, we took a more intense approach by complementing the court with disciplinary individuals; for example, the district attorney, defense counsel, law enforcement, treatment providers. Now we have consolers, probation officers, case managers, social workers. This is what you call a multidisciplinary-team approach to helping an individual address what has been assessed as an alcohol problem, which make no mistake is an illness. A treatable illness.” Continue reading
"Kelly Duane de la Vega and Katie Galloway have spent much of their careers making films about America’s criminal justice system. In their latest documentary, The Return(supported by JustFilms and Ford’s Youth Opportunity and Learning program), Duane de la Vega and Galloway follow Kevin Bilal Chatman and Kenneth Anderson as they adjust to life outside of prison. Both men got life sentences for non-violent drug offenses and later had their sentences commuted. Through their experiences, the film examines California’s "Three Strikes" law—one of the harshest criminal sentencing policies in the country—and its unprecedented amendment in 2012, via the passage of Prop. 36." Continue to article and videos
From the Washington Post: "A generation ago, globalization shrank the world. Nations linked by trade and technology began to erase old boundaries. But now barriers are rising again, driven by waves of migration, spillover from wars and the growing threat of terrorism." This is a comprehensive presentation of three episodes with videos, graphs, and more. To view, please click here.
By David Bacon: "As the talks to renegotiate NAFTA unfold in Washington, most attention in the United States has understandably focused on its domestic impact. Yet the treaty also had an enormous effect on Mexico, spurring a wave of forced migration of millions of people. Today a growing number of union members in all three NAFTA countries believe the treaty should be renegotiated-first, just to heal the damage done to workers. But a new treaty, or a new relationship between Mexico, the U.S., and Canada, they say, should also ensure that a new NAFTA and other treaties like it never cause the same devastation." Read more
Associated Press from The Sacramento Bee
OCTOBER 10, 2017 11:57 AM
Nearly 50 years after the Kerner Commission studied the causes of deadly riots in America's cities, its last surviving member says he remains haunted that its recommendations on U.S. race relations and poverty were never adopted.
But former U.S. Sen. Fred Harris of Oklahoma also said he's hopeful those ideas will be embraced one day, and he's encouraged by Black Lives Matter and other social movements.
In an interview with The Associated Press, the 86-year-old Harris said he still feels strongly that poverty and structural racism enflame racial tensions, even as the United States becomes more diverse.
"Today, there are more people in America who are poor — both in numbers and greater percentage," Harris told the AP from his home in Corrales, New Mexico. "And poor people today are poorer than they were then. It's harder to get out of poverty." Read More
Blog by Kathy Staudt.
Fernando Avila, head of the FEChAC, Fundación del Empresariado Chihuahuense, Asociación Civil (A.C.), (Chihuahuan Business Foundation), spoke at the October 1st EP Social Justice Education Forum. Unique aspects of FEChAC include its reliance on a business tax, business councils around the State of Chihuahua, and its well-managed outcome-based organization.
FEChAC responds to proposals submitted by nonprofit organizations (asociaciones civiles, civil-society organizations) to fund projects in the areas of education, social skills, and health. This unique partnership, called the "shared social responsibility model," brings together private, nonprofit/NGO non-governmental organizations, government, and community residents.
Avila spoke about the history of the organization, which began as a 'fund' in 1990 to respond to flooding and then became a 'foundation' in 1996. The foundation supports thousands of projects, the results for which can be found on its website: http://www.fechac.org.mx. Many projects focus on children who attend primaria school (in morning, afternoon, and sometimes evening shifts) with safe programs to build skills and solidarity while parents work. Ampliando el Desarrollo de los Niños, (ADN), is one of them. See various videos on You Tube with testimonies and visuals about activities: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODt9J-I8CP4 . Foundation staff members apply for grants and partnerships which extend the resources beyond business taxes. For example, NFL-Mexico contributions support sports programs for kids.
Questions might be raised about nonprofit projects that can address only a fraction of systemic need without public policy change AND public funds to implement those changes. FEChAC is quite aware of the need to and challenges of changing policies, according to Avila. For example, for its youth alcohol-prevention efforts, in a city like Ciudad Juárez where the average age of the first drink is 12, FEChAC was able to gain policy attention from the municipal government for rules that prohibit selling alcohol to children. While enforcement is not perfect, the number of stores selling to children and teens has gone down according to their research.
Questions also emerge about the many smaller NGOs not yet registered in government, a costly operation (15,000 pesos) plus certifications by accountants and notaries about financial management. FEChAC works with the NGO Fortaleza to provide technical assistance to fledgling nonprofits and to pay the initial fees for registration as an official civil association. The foundation itself is recognized widely for its standards-based management (ISO 9000) and low overhead (8%); "the United Nations calls it one of the 79 most reliable nonprofit organizations in the world," according to Avila.
Much work remains. While Food Banks exist elsewhere in Chihuahua, none operates in the state's largest city, Ciudad Juárez. Also, minimum wages and maquiladora assembly-line wages are extremely low, at US$4-5 per day though average about US$8 per day in the maquilas. A living wage, or what in Mexico is called a 'salario digno,' would allow working people to earn a salary that would afford their families greater dignity in everyday life. Thus far, corporations have not used their political clout and socially responsible practices of foundation support to move the state in that direction.
To answer the question posed in the title, YES, corporations play a role in Mexico's State of Chihuahua through a tax they periodically renew to the state Congress on a regular basis. However, they could play an even stronger role with efforts to change more policies and get those policies funded--especially policies to raise wages of the hundreds of thousands of factory workers.
Readers might raise the question of whether and how corporations on the U.S. side of the border might pursue more socially responsible practices. Businesses that make central the well-being of working people and their children (the future generation) on both sides of the border can play a role in elevating the prosperity of people in our integrated border region.
When Oscar Martínez wrote the book Border People in 1994, he distinguished between people who identify as 'national' or 'binational' in both the U.S. and Mexico. Is this distinction still relevant, and in which direction are we leaning and growing? We in the El Paso Social Justice Education Forum affirm the connectedness of the people in our larger metropolitan Paso del Norte region of two cities and three states divided by a borderline. We seek dialogue with our readers, attendees, and wider public on the extent to which border people are becoming more or less 'binational' and how that larger binational perspective might enhance the well-being of the more than two million of us who live, work, and interact in our borderlands.
Kathy Staudt is a retired professor and member of the El Paso Social Justice Education Forum planning committee.
From the Global Post. Timely and thoughtful article by Timothy A. Wise:
Mexico’s largest agribusiness association invited me to Aguascalientes to participate in its annual forum in October. The theme for this year’s gathering was “New Perspectives on the Challenge of Feeding the World.”
But it was unclear why Mexico, which now imports 42 percent of its food, would be worried about feeding the world. It wasn’t doing so well feeding its own people.
In part, you can thank the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for that. Twenty years ago, on January 1, 1994, NAFTA took effect, and Mexico was the poster child for the wonders of free trade. The promises seemed endless.
Mexico would enter the “First World” of developed countries on the crest of rising trade and foreign investment. Its dynamic manufacturing sector would create so many jobs it would not only end the US immigration problem but absorb millions of peasant farmers freed from their unproductive toil in the fields. Mexico could import cheap corn and export electronics.
So much for promises. Read more
“Build the Wall.” Three words energized a campaign.
But could it be done? What would it cost? What would it accomplish? Our search for answers became this, a landmark new report, “The Wall.”
The task was massive. We flew the entire border, drove it too. More than 30 reporters and photographers interviewed migrants, farmers, families, tribal members — even a human smuggler. We joined Border Patrol agents on the ground, in a tunnel, at sea. We patrolled with vigilantes, walked the line with ranchers. We scoured government maps, fought for property records.
In this report, you can watch aerial video of every foot of the border, explore every piece of fence, even stand at the border in virtual reality. Read/see more
Presented by Kathy Staudt at the August 17, 2017 Town Hall, “El Paso and Ciudad Juárez after 23 Years of NAFTA,” Café Mayapan, El Paso, TX.
Since NAFTA went into effect in 1994, both Mexico and the U.S. expanded their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and experienced good, though uneven rates of economic growth. In our borderlands, the number of jobs grew enormously in Ciudad Juárez, now at over 250,000 maquiladora workers, however with most earning take-home pay of less than US$50 per week.
Trump ran an anti-Mexico, anti-Mexican, and anti-NAFTA campaign. He stressed the loss of U.S. manufacturing jobs, despite the Trump family’s use of low-cost labor outside the U.S. in the global economy. El Paso experienced the largest NAFTA-related job losses, as officially certified with names and total numbers compared to other parts of the United States.
Trump’s call to “repeal NAFTA” and establish a “border tax” threatened many constituencies that depend on heavy investment in what is called “integrated supply-chain production” in all three countries. After the inauguration in January, many national, state, and border businesses ran scared over the threats, but they mobilized quickly with allies in Trump’s cabinet, especially the Departments of Agriculture and Commerce. Initially, Mexican leaders reacted defensively using rhetoric about diversifying their economy, trading elsewhere, and reducing their dependency on the United States.
U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) Lighthizer’s political appointment was approved in May and the so-called “NAFTA Modernization” process began while the president expressed unstable opinions about this and other topics. The Citizens Trade Watch labor and environmental coalition re-emerged once again, just as it did to help defeat the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The coalition is not against trade or trade rules, but rather in favor of FAIRER trade rules. “Replace NAFTA” is their key phrase (see sticker). Yet few in the coalition address the extremely low wages of Mexican workers, even though the 10:1 legal minimum wage differential will obviously incentivize more corporations to create jobs in Mexico’s low-wage economy. Even Mexico under PRI leadership does not prioritize higher wages for their workers.
One of the few voices heard last year on the wage issue was Pope Francis who visited the borderlands in February. He said (translated) “God will hold accountable the slave owners of our days.”
With an early June deadline, the USTR received 12,000 comments on NAFTA (mine was one of them!). In late June, the USTR held three days of hearings. I went through the list of testifiers and found that businesses represented more than 95% of the 141 names and affiliations. The first round of negotiations began yesterday (August 16), with more rounds to come in Mexico and Canada. If a proposed agreement is developed, it must make its way through the U.S. Congress (House and Senate) and White House, a daunting political process matched in the other two countries. Mexico will elect a new president in mid-2018, and if MORENA wins, Mexico could withdraw from NAFTA.
II.Two Relevant Points from my Research on Border Inequalities
My latest book, Border Politics in a Global Era: Comparative Perspectives*, contains far too much material to present here, but I will share two key points from the analysis. In October, I will make presentations about the book: one at the El Paso Museum of History, October 12 at 7 pm, and the other at the UTEP Library Blumberg Auditorium October 16 at 1:30 pm.
For the book, I developed a database of 300 land borders and created a metric called “Borderland Inequality Ratios” using 2016 GDP per capita, PPP (Purchasing Power Parity), constant US$ figures. To my surprise, the U.S.-Mexico borderlands was one of the bottom 40 most unequal borderlands in the entire world.
I also compared Borderland Inequality Ratios over time, from 1975-2014. The U.S.-Mexico ratio fluctuates slightly but mainly remains constant except that inequalities have increased somewhat since NAFTA. If NAFTA had created fairer trade rules, we should have seen greater shared prosperity and reduced inequalities. NAFTA did no such thing.
Even the El Paso retail trade is affected by extremely low wages. Approximately 15% of shoppers come from Ciudad Juárez and spend ~$980 million annually, according to economist Tom Fullerton. If Mexican workers’ wages increased, not only would we see better living conditions, but also greater spending on this side of the border, thus spreading and sharing prosperity.
III.A Grim Scenario? There IS hope amid uncertainty.
If NAFTA negotiations are stalled or countries withdraw, several questions should be posed for our borderlands region. What happens to those 250,000+ maquiladora workers and their daily food and shelter needs? Many have migrated to the northern border. Will they return home (but to what jobs?)? Will they migrate elsewhere? In Mexico’s upcoming presidential election, MORENA’s economic development strategy will offer an alternative to the PRI and PAN. Will they win? Mexico’s presidency is won with a plurality of popular votes, not a majority and certainly not with an Electoral College formula like the U.S. that can undermine the popular vote.
So things may appear grim for replacing NAFTA with a fairer trade deal. We know that business people have privileged voices in the USTR-managed NAFTA negotiations. However, environmental activists and working people can pursue other strategies in upcoming months, such as the following.
*Talk to friends here and especially elsewhere about the dangers of a NAFTA Modernization process that privileges business over workers, including workers in Mexico. Material is available from organizations like www.ReplaceNAFTA.org , www.GlobalTradeWatch.org, and www.Citizens.org . The materials provide detail on proposed threats to us all that others on this panel discuss, including a dispute-settlement process that only corporate lawyers resolve (which can undermine local and state democratic protections for food and against pollution) and changes in Rules of Origin requirements (which could have the effect of a border tax). As some of the trade-watch people say: “No deal is better than a bad deal.”
*Acknowledge and work with friends of labor and the environment in Mexico and Canada. Panelist Cemelli de Aztlan attended a Mexico City conference of transnational activists and read from their resolution. (See picture; see posters from May Day.)
*Work on the upcoming mid-term elections of 2018 to change the ‘cast of characters’ in the U.S. Congress. Go to candidate town-hall meetings. Meet with candidates to relay concerns firmly and with civility. As important, talk to friends elsewhere about participating in the upcoming elections to change the cast of characters in Congress, perhaps even shifting the party majority.
*Write OpEds and use social media to speak to the wider majority of voters and activists. Move beyond speaking only to those who agree with you. Remember that alternative economic development strategies exist.
The mid-term election is crucial for changing the cast of characters--representatives and lobbyists--who drive inequality in the U.S. and the North American region. Even the Republican majority in Congress is worried, some of them distancing themselves from the president. And business people have begun to be wary too, resigning from manufacturing and CEO councils (that Trump ultimately dismissed) and raising ethical concerns about leadership.
Much depends on people’s voices and actions, not merely registering to vote but organizing, conversing intensively and actually voting. Remember that there IS power in numbers. We need far more strong border voices: You have a voice - use it!
*Kathleen Staudt, Border Politics in a Global Era…(2017), available from https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781442266186, online bookstores, and the UTEP bookstore at the October 16 event.
By Kathy Staudt
With a new place and time schedule, the El Paso Social Justice Education Forum’s first Sunday afternoon bimonthly forum on June 4th showed eleven short videos about the Border Wall. We share these videos on this reflection-blog, and the 500+ ‘likers’ on our Facebook page and recipients of our 700+ email list.
As readers know, the Mexico-U.S. border is almost 2,000 miles long with 14 twin cities and towns where people interact on everyday bases in interdependent economies. Almost 800 miles of what the government calls ‘fencing’ has been in place, especially after the U.S. Congress passed the Secure Fence Act of 2006. The Rio Grande/Río Bravo is the dividing line for most of the Texas-Mexico border. The question to ponder and discuss: Just how much more fence/wall could be constructed, at what cost to border communities and to taxpayers?
Watch some of the following videos. Some show the ease of scaling the wall; others show wall construction options, their costs (short- and long-term), and the years necessary to complete the building process (after which costs would kick in for maintenance). Still other videos offer comic relief: The two videos of Conan O’Brien in Mexico City are hilarious! In one, he asks people on the street what they think of Trump’s claims that Mexico will pay; the other shows an interview with Mexico’s former President Vicente Fox who has been outspoken in his tweets and continuous criticism, using salty language.
An amazing group of about fifty people dialogued after the videos, contributing insightful comments and expertise about multiple issues that affect our borderlands. One issue involves the continued stall on immigration reform, deportation, and beginning in 2017, “deportation on steroids” in popular parlance. Other comments related to how politicians use ‘border security’ during elections and budget hearings to push a fearful (even hateful) population to support the hardening of borders. For example, the Texas Legislature allocates nearly a billion taxpayer dollars to augment the state Department of Public Safety for border security. In this session, SB4 passed on so-called Sanctuary Cities, but local counties and cities have filed lawsuits against measures that would use local law enforcement to step up federal immigration enforcement to avoid fines and jail. Several people offered suggestions on ways people might support nonprofits and refugees stuck in jail-like ‘detention facilities.’
All in all, we had productive discussions with good border people about the possibility and consequences of even more walls in our binational community. This reflection-blog is offered in the hopes that more of you who “like” us on Facebook and receive our emails will participate in future sessions! Please join us.
Additional Coverage of Forum by El Diario de El Paso, Martes 21 Febrero 2017
Expertos en relaciones binacionales encabezaron un foro en la Universidad de Texas en El Paso, sobre el primer mes de la administración del presidente Trump.
La discusión, titulada ‘Relaciones Fronterizas en la Era de Trump’, contó con la participación de varios especialistas.
Entre los principales puntos de discusión en ‘Relaciones Fronterizas en la Era de Trump’, se debatió el posible futuro del Tratado de Libre Comercio (NAFTA), la necesidad de estrategias de cooperación en Ciudad Juárez y El Paso, y la creciente oleada de nacionalismo en ambos países.